Эмпирическая проверка теории обработки социальной информации и влияние эмоций в ситуациях насилия

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21202/1993-047X.11.2017.1.189-207

Кендра Н. Боуэн, Дженнифер Дж. Робертс, Эрик Коушэн, Аарон Бартула


Полный текст:

PDF

Аннотация


Цель: исследование процесса принятия решений в ситуациях, связанных с высокой степенью риска насилия.


Методы: формально-юридический, социологический, метод иерархического обобщенного линейного моделирования.

Результаты: в криминологии при изучении процесса принятия решений у правонарушителя обычно применяется подход рационального выбора. Однако этот подход не учитывает комплексного взаимодействия ситуационных, когнитивных, эмоциональных и личностных факторов, которые оказывают влияние на процесс принятия решения о совершении правонарушения. С этой целью в данной статье исследуется процесс принятия решений в ситуациях, связанных с высокой степенью риска агрессии, и обращается особое внимание на аспекты обработки социальной информации и показатели эмоционального состояния. В статье рассматриваются данные о 236 недавно приговоренных к тюремному заключению преступниках, включая их персональные данные и сообщения о случаях насилия и избегания насилия (n = 466).

Научная новизна: в статье впервые обосновано, что ряд аспектов ситуационной обработки социальной информации и ряд показателей эмоционального состояния (такие как интерпретация намерений, постановка цели и выработка реакции) являются значимыми прогностическими факторами повышения агрессии, а следовательно, повышения вероятности совершения правонарушения.

Практическая значимость: основные положения и выводы статьи могут быть использованы в научной и правоприменительной деятельности при рассмотрении вопросов, связанных с выявлением и устранением причин и условий, способствующих совершению правонарушений, а также оказанием воспитательного воздействия на лиц в целях недопущения совершения правонарушений или антиобщественного поведения.


Ключевые слова


процесс принятия решений; эмоции; ситуация; теория обработки социальной информации; теория; насильственные преступления; правонарушение

Литература


Horney, J. An Alternative Psychology of Criminal Behavior: The American Society of Criminology 2005 Presidential Address, Criminology, 2006, vol. 44, No. 1, p. 16.

Mead, G. H. Mind, Self, and Society, Chicago, IL: University Chicago Press, 1934.

Birkbeck, C., Lafree, G. The Situational Analysis of Crime and Deviance, Annual Review of Sociology, 1993, vol. 19, pp. 113–137.

Sampson, R. J., Lauritsen, J. L. Violent Victimization and Offending: Individual-, Situational-, and Community-Level Risk Factors, Understanding and Preventing Violence, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1994, pp. 1–114.

Felson, R. B., Steadman, H. J. Situational Factors in Disputes Leading to Criminal Violence, Criminology, 1983, vol. 21, pp. 59–74.

Oliver, W. The Violent Social World of Black Men, New York, NY: Lexington, 1994.

Boudon, R. Limitations of Rational Choice Theory, American Journal of Sociology, 1998, vol. 104, No. 3, pp. 817–828.

De Haan, W., Jaco, Vos. A Crying Shame: The Over-Rationalized Conception of Man in the Rational Choice Perspective, Theoretical Criminology, 2003, vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 29–54.

Jacobs, B. A., Wright, R. Stick-Up, Street Culture, and Offender Motivation, Criminology, 1999, vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 149–174.

Walsh, D. Victim Selection Procedures Among Economic Criminals: The Rational Choice Perspective, The Reasoning Criminal: Rational Choice Perspectives on Criminal Offending, ed. D. B. Cornish, R. V. Clarke, New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, 1986, pp. 39–52.

Johnson, E., Payne, J. The Decision to Commit a Crime: An Information-Processing Analysis, The Reasoning Criminal: Rational Choice Perspectives on Criminal Offending, ed. D. B. Cornish, R. V. Clarke, New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, 1986, pp. 170–185.

Glockner, A., Betsch, T. Multiple-Reason Decision Making Based on Automatic Processing, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 2008, vol. 34, pp. 1055–1075.

Crick, N. R., Dodge, K. A. A Review and Reformulation of Social Information-Processing Mechanisms in Children’s Social Adjustment, Psychological Bulletin, 1994, vol. 115, pp. 74–101.

Lemerise, E. A., Arsenio F. W. An Integrated Model of Emotion Processes and Cognition in Social Information Processing, Child Development, 2000, vol. 71, pp. 107–118.

Ybarra, O. Naive Causal Understanding of Valenced Behaviors and its Implications for Social Information Processing, Psychological Bulletin, 2002, vol. 128, pp. 421–441.

Dodge, K. A., Rabiner, D. L. Returning to Roots: On Social Information Processing and Moral Development, Child Development, 2004, vol. 75, No. 4, pp. 1003–1008.

Zelli, A., Dodge, K. A., Laird, R. D., Lochman, J. E. The Distinction Between Beliefs Legitimizing Aggression and Deviant Processing of Social Cues: Testing Measurement Validity and the Hypothesis that Biased Processing Mediates the Effects of Beliefs on Aggression, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999, vol. 77, pp. 150–166.

Dodge, K. A. The Structure and Function of Reactive and Proactive Aggression, The Development and Treatment of Childhood Aggression, ed. D. J. Pepler, K. H. Rubin, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1991, pp. 201–218.

Lansford, J. E., Malone, P. S., Dodge, K. A., Crozier, J. C., Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E. A 12-Year Prospective Study of Patterns of Social Information Processing Problems and Externalizing Behaviors, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 2006, vol. 34, pp. 715–724.

De Castro, B. O. The Development of Social Information Processing and Aggressive Behavior: Current Issues, European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 2004, vol. 1, pp. 87–102.

De Castro, B. O., Veerman, J. W., Koops, W., Joop D. Bosch, Monshouwer, H. J. Hostile Attribution of Intent and Aggressive Behavior: A Meta-Analysis, Child development, 2002, vol. 73, No. 3, pp. 916–934.

Fontaine, R. G., Tanha, M., Yang, C., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S., 38:615-626. Does Response Evaluation and Decision (RED) Mediate the Relationship Between Hostile Attributional Style and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence?, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 2010, vol. 38, No. 5, pp. 615–626.

Halligan, S. L., Cooper, P. J., Healy, S. J., Murray, L. The Attribution of Hostile Intent in Mothers, Fathers and Their Children, Abnormal Child Psychology, 2007, vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 594–604.

Dodge, K. A. Social Cognition and Children’s Aggressive Behavior, Child Development, 1980, vol. 51, pp. 162–170.

Arsenio, W. F., Adams, E., Gold, J. Social Information Processing, Moral Reasoning, and Emotion Attributions: Relations with Adolescents’ Reactive and Proactive Aggression, Child Development, 2009, vol. 80, No. 6, pp. 1739–1755.

Arsenio, W. F., Lemerise, E. A. Aggression and Moral Development: Integrating Social Information Processing and Moral Domains Model, Child Development, 2004, vol. 75, No. 4, pp. 987–1002.

Coccaro, E. F., Noblett, K. L., Mccloskey, M. S. Attributional and Emotional Responses to Socially Ambiguous Cues: Validation of a New Assessment of Social/Emotional Information Processing in Healthy Adults and Impulsive Aggressive Patients, Journal of Psychiatric Research, 2009, vol. 43, No. 10, pp. 915–925.

Chen, P., Coccaro, E. F., Jacobson, K. C. Hostile Attribution Bias, Negative Emotional Responding, and Aggression in Adults: Moderating Effects of Gender and Impulsivity, Aggressive Behavior, 2012, vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 47–63.

Losel, F., Bliesener, T., Bender, D. Social Information Processing, Experiences of Aggression in Social Contexts, and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents, Criminal Justice and Behavior, 2007, vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 330–347.

Dodge, K. A., Coie, J. D., Lynam, D. Aggression and Antisocial Behavior in Youth, Handbook of Child Psychology, vol. 3, ed. N. Eisenberg, Social, Emotional, and Personality Development, 6th ed., ed. W. Damon, R. M. Lerner, New York, NY: Wiley, 2006, pp. 719–788.

Crick, N. R., Dodge, K. A. Social Information-Processing Mechanisms in Reactive and Proactive Aggression, Child Development, 1996, vol. 67, No. 3, pp. 993–1002.

Crozier, J. C., Dodge, K. A., Fontaine, R. G., Lansford, J. E., Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S. Social Information Processing and Cardiac Predictors of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2008, vol. 117, No. 2, pp. 253–267.

Quiggle, N. L., Garber, J., Panak, W. F., Dodge, K. A. Social Information Processing in Aggressive and Depressed Children, Child Development, 1992, vol. 63, No. 6, pp. 1305–1320.

Shahinfar, A., Kupersmidt, J. B., Matz, L. S. The Relation Between Exposure to Violence and Social Information Processing Among Incarcerated Adolescents, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2001, vol. 110, No. 1, pp. 136–141.

Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E., Valente, E. Social Information Processing Patterns Partially Mediate the Effect of Early Physical Abuse on Later Conduct Problems, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1995, vol. 104, No. 4, pp. 632–643.

Fontaine, R. G., Burks, V. S., Dodge, K. A. Response Decision Processes and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Adolescents, Development and Psychopathology, 2002, vol. 14, No. 01, pp. 107–122.

Topalli, V. Criminal Expertise and Offender Decision-Making: An Experimental Analysis of How Offenders and Non-Offenders Differentially Perceive Social Stimuli, The British Journal of Criminology, 2005, vol. 45, No. 3, pp. 269–295.

Boles, S. M., Miotto, K. Substance Abuse and Violence: A Review of the Literature, Aggression and Violent Behavior, 2003, vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 155–174.

Chambers, J. C., Ward, T., Eccleston, L., Brown, M. The Pathways Model of Assault: A Qualitative Analysis of the Assault Offender and Offense, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2009, vol. 24, No. 9, pp. 1423–1449.

Felson, R. B., Burchfield, K. B., Teasdale, B. The Impact of Alcohol on Different Types of Violent Incidents, Criminal Justice and Behavior, 2007, vol. 34, pp. 1057–1068.

Graham, K., West, P., Wells, S. Evaluating Theories of Alcohol-Related Aggression Using Observations of Young Adults in Bars, Addiction, 2000, vol. 95, No. 6, pp. 847–863.

Krienert, J. L., Vandiver, D. M. Assaultive Behavior in Bars: A Gendered Comparison, Violence and Victims, 2009, vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 232–247.

Phillips, S., Maume, M. O. Have Gun Will Shoot? Weapon Instrumentality, Intent, and the Violent Escalation of Conflict, Homicide Studies, 2007, vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 272–294.

Wells, W., Horney, J. Weapon Effects and Individual Intent to do Harm: Influences on the Escalation of Violence, Criminology, 2002, vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 265–296.

Bradburn, N. M., Rips, L. J., Shevell, S. K. Answering Autobiographical Questions: The Impact of Memory and Inference on Surveys, Science, 1987, vol. 236, No. 4798, pp. 157–161.

Office of National Drug Control Policy. ADAM II: 2010 Annual Report Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC, 2011.

Bennett, T. H., J., F. Violent Street Crime: Making Sense of Seemingly Senseless Acts., Brookman International Review of Law Computers and Technology, 2008, vol. 22, No. 1–2, pp. 171–180.

Brookman, F., Mullins, C., Bennett, T., Wright, R. Gender, Motivation and the Accomplishment of Street Robbery in the United Kingdom, British Journal of Criminology, 2007, vol. 47, No. 6, pp. 861–884.

Jacobs, B. A., Topalli, V., Wright, R. Managing Retaliation: Drug Robbery and Informal Sanctions Threat, Criminology, 2000, vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 171–198.

Pizarro, J. M. Reassessing the Situational Covariates of Homicides: Is There a Need to Disaggregate?, Homicide Studies, 2008, vol. 12, pp. 323–349.

Topalli, V., Wright, R., Fornango, R. Drug Dealers, Robbery and Retaliation: Vulnerability, Deterrence and the Contagion of Violence, British Journal of Criminology, 2002, vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 337–351.

Horney, J. Criminal Events and Criminal Careers: An Integrative Approach to the Study of Violence, The Process and Structure of Crime: Criminal Events and Crime Analysis, ed. R. F. Meier, L. W. Kennedy, V. F. Sacco, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 2001, pp. 141–168.

Sampson, R. J., Lauritsen, J. L. Deviant Lifestyles, Proximity to Crime, and the Offender-Victim Link in Personal Violence, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 1990, vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 110–139.

Felson, R. B. Big People Hit Little People: Sex Differences in Physical Power and Interpersonal Violence, Criminology, 1996, vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 433–452.

Short, J. F. The Level of Explanation Problem Revisited –The American Society of Criminology 1997 Presidential Address, Criminology, 1998, vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 3–36.

Topalli, V., O’Neal, E. C. Retaliatory Motivation Enhances Attributions of Hostility When People Process Ambiguous Social Stimuli, Aggressive Behavior, 2003, vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 155–172.

Spielberger, C. D., Jacobs, G. A., Russell, S. F., Crane, R. S. Assessment of Anger: The State-Trait Anger Scale, Advances in Personality Assessment, ed. J. N. Butcher, C. D. Spielberger, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1983, pp. 159–187.

Spielberger, C. D. STAXI-2: State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2: Profession Manual, Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, 1999.

Raudenbush, S. W., Bryk, A. S. Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods, 2nd ed., Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2002.

Raudenbush, S. W., Bryk, A. S., Cheong, Y. F., Congdon, R., Toit, M. D. HLM 6: Hierarchical Linear and Nonlinear Modeling, Lincolnwood, IL: SSI, Inc., 2004.

Junger-Tas, J., Marshall, I. H. The Self-Report Methodology in Crime Research, Crime and Justice, 1999, vol. 25, pp. 291–367.

Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Thornton, A., Freedman, D., Amel, J. W., Harrington, H., Smeijers, J., Silva, P. A. The Life History Calendar: A Research and Clinical Assessment Method for Collecting Retrospective Event-History Data, International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 1996, vol. 6, pp. 101–114.

Roberts, J., Horney, J. The Life Event Calendar Method in Criminological Research, Handbook of Quantitative Criminology, ed. A. R. Piquero, D. Weisburd, New York, NY: Springer, 2010, pp. 289–312.

Jacobs, B. A., Wright, R. Moralistic Street Robbery, Crime and Delinquency, 2008, vol. 54, No. 4, pp. 511–531.

Bowen, K. N., Roberts, J. J., Kocian, E. J., Bartula, A. An empirical test of social information processing theory and emotions in violent situations, Western Criminology Review vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 18–33.



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21202/1993-047X.11.2017.1.189-207