Мисдиминор с участием лиц с расстройствами поведения в Сиэтле: особенности задержания, передачи дела в прокуратуру, предъявления обвинения и рассмотрения дела по существу

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21202/1993-047X.14.2020.2.352-380

Жаклин Б. Хельфготт, Уильям С. Паркин, Кристофер Фишер


Полный текст:

PDF

Аннотация


Цель: изучение специфики досудебного и судебного производства по делам, связанным с совершением мисдиминора лицами с расстройствами поведения на территории крупнейшего города на северо-западе США – Сиэтле.


Методы: в работе применяется квазиэкспериментальный метод для изучения особенностей задержания, передачи дела в прокуратуру, предъявления обвинения и рассмотрения дела по существу при совершении мисдиминора лицами с расстройствами поведения. Выборка из 505 проступков с участием лиц с расстройствами поведения в Сиэтле в период 2016–2018 гг. сравнивалась с аналогичной случайной выборкой из 1 053 проступков, не отмеченных поведенческим кризисом. Изучались сходства и различия между этими выборками на этапах задержания, передачи дела в прокуратуру, предъявления обвинения и рассмотрения дела по существу.


Результаты: правонарушения категории «мисдиминор» часто совершаются людьми, переживающими поведенческий кризис того или иного рода, например, психическое расстройство, зависимость от алкоголя и наркотиков,
бездомность. Досудебное и судебное производство по делам, связанным с совершением мисдиминора лицами с расстройствами поведения, остается недостаточно изученным в научной литературе и правоприменительной практике. В 2015 г. в отделе полиции Сиэтла была введена Политика вмешательства в кризисной ситуации (Crisis Intervention Policy) и разработан соответствующий регламент, что позволило системно учитывать проступки
с участием лиц с расстройствами поведения и совершенствовать меры полицейского реагирования в отношении них. В работе рассматриваются проблемы, возникающие при досудебном и судебном производстве по делам, связанным с совершением мисдиминора лицами в состоянии поведенческого кризиса.


Научная новизна: в работе впервые обоснован вывод о том, что лица с расстройствами поведения чаще, по сравнению с лицами, не имеющими расстройства поведения, подвергаются задержанию; им чаще предъявляют обвинения, их чаще заключают под стражу. Причем, как показывает анализ статистических показателей, среди лиц с расстройствами поведения больше женщин.

 

Практическая значимость: основные положения и выводы статьи могут быть использованы в научной, педагогической и правоприменительной деятельности при рассмотрении вопросов, связанных с предупреждением
и пресечением правонарушений.


Ключевые слова


мисдиминор; правонарушение; производство по делам об административных правонарушениях; реагирование на поведенческий кризис; расстройство поведения; юридический процесс

Литература


Natapoff A. Punishment without crime: How our massive misdemeanor system traps the innocent and makes America more unequal, New York, NY, Basic Books, 2018.

2017 crime in the United States, United States Department of Justice, available at: https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2017/crime- in-the-u.s.-2017/home

Helfgott J. B. Criminal behavior: Theories, typologies, and criminal justice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2008.

Natapoff A. Misdemeanors, Southern California Law Review, 2017, No. 85, pp. 1313–1376.

Roberts J. Why misdemeanors matter: defining effective advocacy in the lower criminal courts, University of California-Davis Law Review, 2011, No. 45 (2), pp. 277–372.

Stevenson M., Mayson, S. The scale of misdemeanor justice, Boston University Law Review, 2018, No. 98 (3), pp. 731–777.

Beckett K., Herbert S. Dealing with disorder: Social control in the post-industrial city. Theoretical Criminology, 2008, No.12 (5), pp. 5–30. DOI: 10.1177/1362480607085792

Beckett K., Herbert S. Penal boundaries: Banishment and the expansion of punishment, Law & Social Inquiry, 2010, No. 55 (1), pp. 1–38. DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-4469.2009.01176.x

Beckett K., Herbert S. Banished: The new social control in urban America, New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Midtveit E. Crime prevention and exclusion: From walls to opera music, Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 2005, No. 6, pp. 23–38. DOI: 10.1080/14043850510035137

Alaraid L. F., Rubin M. Misdemeanor arrestees with mental health needs: Diversion and outpatient services as a recidivism reduction strategy, International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 2018, No. 62 (3), pp. 575–590. DOI: 10.1177/0306624X16652892

Mack Jr. M. L. Decriminalization of mental illness: Fixing a broken system, 2017, retrieved from Conference of State Court Administrators website: https://cosca.ncsc.org/~/media/Microsites/Files/COSCA/Policy%20Papers/2016-2017-Decriminalizationof-Mental-Illness-Fixing-a-Broken-System.ashx

Schug R. A., Fradella H. F. Mental illness and crime, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2015.

Harris V., Dagadakis C. Length of incarceration: Was there parity for mentally ill offenders?, International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 2004, No. 27 (4), pp. 387–393. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijlp.2004.04.001

Beck B. Broken windows in the cul-de-sac? Race/ethnicity and quality-of-life policing in the changing suburbs, Crime & Delinquency, 2019, No. 65 (2), pp. 270–292. DOI: 10.1177/0011128717739568

Johnson B. D., Golub A., McCabe J. The international implications of quality-of-life policing as practiced in New York City, Public Practice and Research, 2010, No. 11 (1), pp. 17–29. DOI: 10.1080/15614260802586368

Katz C. M., Webb V. J., Schaefer D. R. An assessment of the impact of quality-of-life policing on crime and disorder, Justice Quarterly, 2001, No. 18 (4), pp. 825–876. DOI: 10.1080/07418820100095111

Vitale A. S. Innovation and institutionalization: Factors in the development of "quality of life" policing in New York City, Policing & Society, 2005, No. 15 (2), pp. 99–124. DOI: 10.1080/10439460500071754

Weisburd D. Hot spots of crime and place- based prevention, Criminology & Public Policy, 2018, No. 17 (1), pp. 5–25. DOI: 10.1111/1745-9133.12350

Weisburd D., Groff E. R., Yang S. The criminology of place: Street segments and our understanding of the crime problem, Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 2012.

Wilson J. Q., Kelling G. L. Broken windows: The police and neighborhood safety, The Atlantic, 1982, No. 249 (3), pp. 29–38.

Golub A., Johnson B. D., Taylor A. Quality of life policing: Do offenders get the message? Policing, 2003, No. 26 (4), pp. 690–707. DOI: 10.1108/13639510310503578

Bellafonte G. The dark side of ‘broken windows’ policing, The New York Times, January 16, 2015, available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/18/nyregion/the-dark-side-of-broken-windows-policing.html

Levine H. Marijuana arrests: Gateway into the Criminal Justice System, The Brooklyn Rail, October 3, 2011, available at: https://brooklynrail.org/2011/10/local/marijuana- arrests-gateway-into-the-criminal-justice-system

Zhao J. S., Lai Y., Ren L., Lawton B. The impact of race/ethnicity and quality-of-life policing on public attitudes toward racially biased policing and traffic stops, Crime & Delinquency, 2015, No. 61 (3), pp. 350–374. DOI: 10.1177/0011128711398028

Elliot L., Golub A., Dunlap E. Off the street and into “the cut”: Deterrence and displacement in NYC’s quality of life marijuana policing, International Journal of Drug Policy, 2012, No. 23 (3), pp. 210–219. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2011.08.006

Fisher W. H., Simon L., Roy-Bujnowski K., Grudzinskas A., Wolff N., Crockett E., Banks S. Risk of arrest among public mental health services recipients and the general public, Psychiatric Services, 2011, No. 62 (1), pp. 67–72. DOI: 10.1176/ps.62.1.pss6201_0067

Chauhan P., Fera A. G., Welsh M. B., Balazon E., Misshula E. Trends in misdemeanor arrest rates in New York. 2014, October. Retrieved from Data Collaborative for Justice website: http://datacollaborativeforjustice.org/wp- content/uploads/2016/08/

Misdemeanor-Report.pdf

Patten M., Bond E., Low-Weiner C., Hood Q. O., Lu O., Tomascak S., Chauhan, P. Trends in marijuana enforcement in New York State, 1990–2017. 2019. Retrieved from Data Collaborative for Justice website: https://datacollaborativeforjustice.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/MARIJUANA.REPORT.FINAL_.NEW_.APPENDIX.pdf

Chauhan, P., Tomascak, S., Cuevas, C., Hood, Q. O., & Lu, O. (2018, February). Trends in Arrests for Misdemeanor Charges in New York City, 19932016. Retrieved from Misdemeanor Justice Project website: http://misdemeanorjustice.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/2018_01_24_MJP.Char ges.FINAL_.pdf

Helfgott J. B., Parkin W. S., Fisher C., Morgan L., Kaur S. Tends in misdemeanor arrests, referrals, and charges in Seattle, 2018. Retrieved from Data Collaborative for Justice website: https://datacollaborativeforjustice.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/

Trends_in_Misdemeanors_Seattle.pdf

Evans S. A., Salekin K. I. Involuntary civil commitment: Communicating with the court regarding “danger to other”, Law and Human Behavior, 2014, No. 38 (4), pp. 325–336. DOI: 10.1037/lhb0000068

Stone D. Dangerous minds: Myths and realities behind the violent behavior of the mentally ill, public perceptions, and the judicial response through involuntary civil commitment, Law & Psychology Review, 2018, No. 42, pp. 59–83.

Grande A. Man arrested for trying to throw woman off Seattle overpass. 2019, March 19. Retrieved from: https://www.kiro7.com/news/local/man-arrested-for-trying-to-throw-woman-off-seattle-overpass/931766654

MYNorthwest Staff, Seattle suspect has long history with police, state mental health, March 21, 2019. Retrieved from: https://mynorthwest.com/1315319/seattle-jonathan-james-wilson-history/?

Washington State Legislature (n. d.). Revised code of Washington 71.05. Retrieved from: https://app.leg.wa.gov/rcw/default.aspx?cite=71.05

Feely M. M. The process is punishment: Handling cases in a lower criminal court, New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 1992.

Nelson J. A dollar or a day: Sentencing misdemeanants in New York State, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 1994, No. 31 (2), pp. 183–201. DOI: 10.1177/0022427894031002006

Munoz E. A., Freng A. B. Age, racial/ethnic minority status, gender and misdemeanor sentencing, Journal of Ethnicity and Criminal Justice, 2007, No. 5 (4), pp. 29–57. DOI: 10.1300/J222v05n04_02

Berdejo C. Criminalizing race: Racial disparities in plea-bargaining, Boston College Law Review, 2018, No. 59(4), pp. 1188–1249.

Brennan P. K. Sentencing female misdemeanants: An examination of the direct and indirect effects of race/ethnicity, Justice Quarterly, 2006, No. 25 (1), pp. 60–95. DOI: 10.1080/07418820600552477

Munoz E. A., McMorris B. J. Misdemeanor sentencing decisions: The cost of being Native American, The Justice Professional, 2002, No. 15 (3), pp. 239–259. DOI: 10.1080/08884310215664

Munoz E. A., Sapp S. G. Racial/ethnic misdemeanor sentencing disparities: Additional evidence for contextual discrimination, Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 2003, No. 1 (2), pp. 27–46. DOI: 10.1300/J222v01n02_02

Lindsay P. Seattle Municipal Court, 2016. Retrieved from: https://www.seattle.gov/Documents/Departments/Council/Committees/CentralStaff/TopicPapers/6b.-Seattle-Municipal-Court.pdf

Chappel D. (Ed.) Policing and the mentally ill: International perspectives, Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, 2013.

Compton M. T., Bahora M., Watson A. C., Oliva J. R. A comprehensive review of extant research on Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) programs, Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online, 2008, No. 36 (1), pp. 47–55.

Compton M. T., Esterberg M. L., McGee R., Kotwicki R. J., Oliva J. R. Brief reports: Crisis intervention team training: Changes in knowledge, attitudes, and stigma related to schizophrenia, Psychiatric Services, 2006, No. 57 (8), pp. 1199–1202. DOI: 10.1176/ps.2006.57.8.1199

Compton M. T., Neubert B. N. D., Broussard B., McGriff J. A., Morgan R., Oliva J. R. Use of force preferences and perceived effectiveness of actions among Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) police officers and non-CIT officers in an escalating psychiatric crisis involving a subject with schizophrenia, Schizophrenia bulletin, 2009, No. 37 (4), pp. 737–745. DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbp146

Davidson M. L. A criminal justice system-wide response to mental illness: Evaluating the effectiveness of the Memphis crisis intervention team training curriculum among law enforcement and correctional officers, Criminal Justice Policy Review, 2016, No. 27 (1), pp. 46–75. DOI: 10.1177/0887403414554997

Dupont R., Cochran S., Pillsbury S. Crisis Intervention Team core elements. The University of Memphis School of Urban Affairs and Public Policy, Dept. of Criminology and Criminal Justice, CIT Center, 2007. Retrieved from: http://cit. memphis.edu/CoreElements.pdf

Lurigio A. J., Watson A. The police and people with mental illness: New approaches to a longstanding problem, Journal of Police Crisis Negotiations, 2010, No. 10 (1/2), pp. 3–14. DOI: 10.1080/15332586.2010.481895

Reuland M., Schwarzfeld M., Draper L. Law enforcement responses to people with mental illnesses: A guide to researchinformed policy and practice, 2009. Retrieved from Council of State Governments Justice Center website: https://csgjusticecenter.org/wp- content/uploads/2012/12/le-research.pdf

Watson A. C., Compton M. T., Draine J. N. The crisis intervention team (CIT) model: An evidence-based policing practice? Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 2017, No. 35 (5–6), pp. 431–441. DOI: 10.1002/bsl.2304

Treatment Advocacy Center. (n.d.). People with untreated mental illness 16 times more likely to be killed by law enforcement. Retrieved from: https://www.treatmentadvocacycenter.org/key- issues/criminalization-of-mental-illness/2976-people-with-untreatedmental-illness-16-times-more-likely-to-be-killed-by-law-enforcement

McKean J., Hendricks J. E. The role of crisis intervention in the police response to domestic disturbances, Criminal Justice Policy Review, 1997, No. 8 (2/3), pp. 269–294, available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/088740349700800207

Teller J. L., Munetz M. R., Gil K. M., Ritter C. Crisis intervention team training for police officers responding to mental disturbance calls, Psychiatric Services, 2006, No. 57 (2), pp. 232–237. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ps.57.2.232

Watson A. C., Fulambarker A. J. The crisis intervention team model of police response to mental health crises: A primer for mental health practitioners, Best Practices in Mental Health, 2012, No. 8 (2), pp. 71–81.

United States Department of Justice, Investigation of the Seattle Police Department, 2011. Retrieved from: https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/crt/legacy/2011/12/16/spd_findletter_12-16-11.pdf

Lightfoot J. Seattle police: What they're doing right with troubled people, 2012, January 12. Retrieved from: https://crosscut.com/2012/01/seattle-police-what-theyre-doing-right-with-troubl

Neidhart E. Managing those in crisis: A yearlong analysis of incidents handled by the Seattle Police Department (Unpublished master’s thesis), Seattle University, Seattle, WA, 2008.

Neidhart E. Crisis intervention and police interactions with individuals with mental illness. In J. B. Helfgott (Ed.), Criminal psychology, Vol. 3, pp. 139–168. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2013.

Helfgott J. B., Hickman M. J., Labossiere A. A descriptive evaluation of the Seattle Police Department’s Crisis response team officer/mental health professional partnership pilot program, International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 2016, No. 44 (1), pp. 109–122. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijlp.2015.08.038.

Seattle Police Manual Crisis Intervention Policy, July 16, 2018. Retrieved from: https://www.seattle.gov/police-manual/title-16-patrol-operations/16110-crisis-intervention

United States Department of Justice. Federal monitor finds Seattle Police Department’s crisis intervention efforts in initial compliance with consent decree requirements, 2016. Retrieved from: https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/federa+l-monitor-finds-seattlepolice-department-s-crisis-intervention-efforts-initial

Miletich S., Carter M. Seattle police found in ‘full and effective compliance’ with court-ordered reforms, The Seattle Times, January 10, 2018. Retrieved from: https://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/crime/seattle-police-found-in-full-and-effectivecompliance-with-court-ordered-reforms/

Lee J. Seattle police have ‘embraced’ crisis-intervention training, report says. The Seattle Times, August 17, 2016. Retrieved from: https://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/crime/seattle-police-have-embraced-crisis-intervention-training-report-says/

Seattle Police Department. Crisis intervention program report, 2018. Retrieved from: https://www.seattle.gov/Documents/Departments/Police/Publications/Crisis-Intervention- Outcome-Report-101818.pdf

Lum C., Vovak H. Variability in the use of misdemeanor arrests by police agencies from 1990 to 2013: An application of group-based trajectory modeling, Criminal Justice Policy Review, 2018, No. 29 (6–7), pp. 536–560. DOI: 10.1177/0887403417731598

Kondo L. L. Advocacy of the establishment of mental health specialty courts in the provision of therapeutic justice for mentally ill offenders, Seattle University Law Review, 2000, No. 24 (2), pp. 373–465.

Gutierrez S. Seattle's Mental Health Court celebrates 10 years, Seattle PostIntelligencer, 2009, June 16. Retrieved from: https://www.seattlepi.com/local/article/Seattle-s-Mental-Health-Court-celebrates-10-years-1304568.php

Collins S. E., Nytrop K., Clifasefi S. L., Lonczak H. S., Daugaard L. Seattle Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD) Program, Police Chief, 2016, No. 83 (8), pp. 36–40. DOI: 10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2017.05.008

Clifasefi S. L., Lonczak H. S., Collins S. E. Seattle’s Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD) program: Within-subjects changes on housing, employment, and income/benefits outcomes and associations with recidivism, Crime & Delinquency, 2017, No. 63 (4), pp. 429–444.

Collins, S. E., Lonczak, H. S., & Clifasefi, S. L. Seattle’s Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD): Program effects on recidivism outcomes, Evaluation and Program Planning, 2017, No. 64 (1), pp. 49–56.

King County (n.d.). Diversion from legal services: LINC prosecutorial diversion program, Retrieved from: https://www.kingcounty.gov/depts/community-human-services/mental-health-substance-abuse/diversion-reentry-services/legalcompetency.aspx

Case B., Steadman H. J., Dupuis S. A., Morris L. S. Who succeeds in jail diversion programs for persons with mental illness? A MultiSite

Study, Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 2009, No. 27 (5), pp. 661–674. DOI: 10.1002/bsl.883

Steadman H. J., Naples M. Assessing the effectiveness of jail diversion programs for persons with serious mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders, Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 2005, No. 23 (2), pp. 163–170. DOI: 10.1002/bsl.640

Helfgott J. B., Parkin W. S., Danner J. Goodwin G., Bray B., Schuur K., Chandler J., Thomas M., Ro S., Kachurina Z., Yap C., Singer J. Seattle Police Department’s Micro Community Policing Plans: Implementation Evaluation. Seattle, WA: Seattle University, 2018. Retrieved from: https://www.seattle.gov/Documents/Departments/Police/Reports/2018_Seattle_PD_MicroCommu nities.pdf

Pooler T. Mental health needs of misdemeanor defendants: An impact evaluation of the Bronx Mental Health Initiative, 2015. Retrieved from Center for Court Innovation website: http://www.courtinnovation.org/sites/default/files/documents/

TargetingTheMentalHealthNeedsOf MisdemeanorDefendants.pdf

Steffensmeier D., Harris C. T., Painter-Davis N. Gender and arrests for larceny, fraud, forgery, and embezzlement: Conventional or occupational property crime offenders?, Journal of Criminal Justice, 2015, No. 43 (3), pp. 205–217. DOI: 10.1016/jjcrimjus.2015.03.004

Taxman F. S., Cropsey K. L. Women and the criminal justice system: Improving outcomes through criminal justice and non-criminal justice responses, Women and Criminal Justice, 2007, No. 17 (2/3), pp. 5–26. DOI: 10.1300/J012v17n02_02

Allen H. Justice unbalanced: Gender, psychiatry and judicial decisions, Philadelphia, PA, Open University Press, 1987.

Bohrman C., Wilson A. B., Watson A., Draine J. How police officers assess for mental illnesses. Victims & Offenders: An International Journal of Evidence-based Research, Policy, and Practice, 2018, No. 15 (8), pp. 1077–1092. DOI: 10.1080/15564886.2018.1527737

Gunnison E., Bernat F. P., Goodstein L. Women, crime, and justice: Balancing the scales, Hoboken, NJ, Wiley-Blackwell, 2016.

Caudy M. S., Tillyer M. S., Tillyer R. Jail vs probation: A gender-specific test of differential effectiveness and moderators of sanction effects, Criminal Justice and Behavior, 2018, No. 45 (7), pp. 949–968. DOI: 10.1177/0093854818766375

Fogg S., Ney B. Building gender informed practices at the pretrial stage: Lessons learned about implementing the Inventory of Needs (ION) in Dutchess County, New York, 2016. Retrieved from National Resource Center on Justice Involved Women website: https://cjinvolvedwomen.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Pretrial-Monograph-Final-Designed.pdf

Kubiak S. P., Arfken C. L. Beyond gender responsivity: Considering differences among community dwelling women involved in the criminal justice system and those involved in treatment, Women & Criminal Justice, 2007, No. 17 (2), pp. 75–94.

Salisbury E. J. Program integrity and the principles of gender-responsive interventions: Assessing the context for sustainable change, Criminology & Public Policy, 2015, No. 14 (2), pp. 329–338. DOI: 10.1111/1745-9133.12131

Loveland D., Boyle M. Intensive case management as a jail diversion program for people with a serious mental illness: A review of the literature, International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 2007, No. 51 (2), pp. 130–150, available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X06287645

Sirotich F. The criminal justice outcomes of jail diversion programs for persons with mental illness: A review of the evidence, The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 2009, No. 37(4), pp. 461–472.

Steadman H., Cocozza J., Veysey B. Comparing outcomes for diverted and nondiverted jail detainees with mental illnesses, Law and Human Behavior, 1999, No. 23 (6), pp. 615–627. DOI: 10.1023/A:102238520

Swaminath R. S., Mendonca J. D., Vidal C., Chapman P. Experiments in change: Pretrial diversion of offenders with mental

illness, The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 2002, No. 47 (5), pp. 450–458, available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/070674370204700506

Swanson J. W., Borum R., Swartz M. S., Hiday V. A., Ryan Wagner H., Burns B. J. Can involuntary outpatient commitment reduce arrests among persons with severe mental illness? Criminal Justice and Behavior, 2001, No. 28 (2), pp. 156–189, available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854801028002002

Hiday V., Wales H., Ray B. Effectiveness of a short-term mental health court: Criminal recidivism one year postexit, Law and Human Behavior, 2013, No. 37 (6), pp. 401–411.

Moore M. E., Hiday V. Mental health court outcomes: A comparison of re-arrest and re-arrest severity between mental health court and traditional court participants, Law and Human Behavior, 2006, No. 30 (6), pp. 659–674. DOI: 10.1007/s10979-006-9061-9

Helfgott J. B., Parkin W. S., Fisher Ch. Crisis-flagged Misdemeanors in Seattle: Arrests, Referrals, Charges, and Case Dispositions, Criminology, Criminal Justice, Law & Society, 2019, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 59–85.



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21202/1993-047X.14.2020.2.352-380