Изменения в правоохранительных действиях при незначительных и тяжких преступлениях после событий в Фергюсоне: анализ задержаний в г. Сент-Луис штата Миссури

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21202/1993-047X.14.2020.2.326-351

Ли Энн Слокум, Клэр Грин, Бет М. Хюбнер, Ричард Розенфельд


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Аннотация


Цель: изучение изменений в правоохранительных действиях при незначительных и тяжких преступлениях в г. Сент-Луис штата Миссури после событий в г. Фергюсоне, получивших широкий общественный резонанс.

Методы: диалектический подход к познанию социальных явлений с использованием основанных на нем общенаучных (анализ, синтез, индукция) и частнонаучных (формально-юридический, системный, сравнительно-правовой, социологический) методов познания.


Результаты: распространено мнение, что американская полиция оказалась в кризисном положении в результате ряда случаев убийства полицейскими безоружных чернокожих подозреваемых, получивших широкий общественный резонанс. Полиция оказалась в центре внимания общества, что, по мнению ряда лиц, затруднило правоохранительную деятельность и привело к росту насильственных преступлений. Это явление стало широко известно как «эффект Фергюсона» после убийства полицейскими Майкла Брауна в г. Фергюсоне штата Миссури. В работе на основе данных за семь лет проведен анализ взаимосвязи событий в г. Фергюсоне со снижением уровня арестов за тяжкие и незначительные преступления в городе г. Сент-Луис штата Миссури.

 

Научная новизна: в работе обосновывается, что под влиянием событий в г. Фергюсоне произошло первоначальное снижение числа арестов белых и черных за незначительные преступления. Затем правоохранительная активность по поводу мисдиминоров и нарушений постановлений выросла и достигла ожидаемых значений, но только относительно черных. Количество арестов черных за тяжкие преступления после событий в г. Фергюсоне сначала упало, количество арестов белых не изменилось; затем число арестов обеих групп стало расти. Исследование вносит вклад в изучение
реакции правоохранительных органов на резонансные инциденты с применением огнестрельного оружия.


Практическая значимость: основные положения и выводы статьи могут быть использованы в научной, педагогической и правоприменительной деятельности при рассмотрении вопросов, связанных с предупреждением
и пресечением правонарушений.


Ключевые слова


преступность; правонарушение; тренды количества арестов; мисдиминор; эффект Фергюсона; снижение правоохранительной деятельности; прерванные временные ряды

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21202/1993-047X.14.2020.2.326-351